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Posted by / 08-Aug-2016 15:14

Least sedating

These practice recommendations are proffered with the awareness that, regardless of the intended level of sedation or route of drug administration, the sedation of a pediatric patient represents a continuum and may result in respiratory depression, laryngospasm, impaired airway patency, apnea, loss of the patient’s protective airway reflexes, and cardiovascular instability.

These adverse responses during and after sedation for a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure may be minimized, but not completely eliminated, by a careful preprocedure review of the patient’s underlying medical conditions and consideration of how the sedation process might affect or be affected by these conditions: for example, children with developmental disabilities have been shown to have a threefold increased incidence of desaturation compared with children without developmental disabilities.

Specifically, guidelines for the delivery of general anesthesia and monitored anesthesia care (sedation or analgesia), outside or within the operating room by anesthesiologists or other practitioners functioning within a department of anesthesiology, are addressed by policies developed by the ASA and by individual departments of anesthesiology.

The sedation of children is different from the sedation of adults.Although intended to encourage high-quality patient care, adherence to the recommendations in this document cannot guarantee a specific patient outcome.However, structured sedation protocols designed to incorporate these safety principles have been widely implemented and shown to reduce morbidity.Practitioners of sedation must have the skills to rescue the patient from a deeper level than that intended for the procedure.For example, if the intended level of sedation is “minimal,” practitioners must be able to rescue from “moderate sedation”; if the intended level of sedation is “moderate,” practitioners must have the skills to rescue from “deep sedation”; if the intended level of sedation is “deep,” practitioners must have the skills to rescue from a state of “general anesthesia.” The ability to rescue means that practitioners must be able to recognize the various levels of sedation and have the skills and age- and size-appropriate equipment necessary to provide appropriate cardiopulmonary support if needed.

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Other modalities, such as careful preparation, parental presence, hypnosis, distraction, topical local anesthetics, electronic devices with age-appropriate games or videos, guided imagery, and the techniques advised by child life specialists, may reduce the need for or the needed depth of pharmacologic sedation.